Scientific Serve appreciate your participation in this Conference. Every Conference is divided into several sessions of subfields. Select the Subfield of your choice please.
Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Neurology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions and disease involving the central and peripheral nervous systems and their subdivisions, the autonomic and somatic nervous systems, including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue, such as muscle. Neurological practice relies heavily on the field of neuroscience. Neuroscience deals with the scientific study of the nervous system. Neurology involves in clinical research, clinical trials, and basic or translational research. While neurology is a nonsurgical specialty its corresponding surgical specialty is neurosurgery. Significant overlap occurs between the fields of neurology and psychiatry with the boundary between the two disciplines and the conditions they treat being somewhat nebulous.
Neurological disorders are disorders that affect the central nervous system or the peripheral nervous systems and can impair the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerve or neuromuscular function. Structural, biochemical or electrical abnormalities in the brain, spinal cord or other nerves can result in a range of symptoms. Symptoms include paralysis, muscle weakness, poor coordination, loss of sensation, seizures, confusion, pain and altered levels of consciousness. There are many recognized neurological disorders, some relatively common, but many rare. They may be assessed by neurological examination and studied and treated within the specialties of neurology and clinical neuropsychology. Interventions for neurological disorders include preventative measures, lifestyle changes, physiotherapy or other therapy, neuro-rehabilitation, pain management, medication, or operations performed by neurosurgeons.
Alzheimer's is the most common cause of dementia, a general term for memory loss and other cognitive abilities serious enough to interfere with daily life. Alzheimer's is a progressive disease, where dementia symptoms gradually worsen over a number of years. In its early stages, memory loss is mild, but with late-stage Alzheimer's, individuals lose the ability to carry on a conversation and respond to their environment. Alzheimer's is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. Those with Alzheimer's live an average of eight years after their symptoms become noticeable to others, but survival can range from four to 20 years, depending on age and other health conditions. Alzheimer's disease accounts for 60 percent to 80 percent of dementia cases. The greatest known risk factor is increasing age and the majority of people with Alzheimer's are 65 and older. Alzheimer's is not just a disease of old age. Approximately 200,000 Americans under the age of 65 have younger-onset Alzheimer’s disease.
Neuroanaesthesia deals with the studies on giving anaesthesia to patients undergoing neurosurgery. It evolved to a subspecialty that combines the rapidly advancing basic and clinical neuroscience knowledge with the knowledge of anaesthesia to improve the outcomes of neurological patients. The specialty also has been able to contribute to the understanding of some of the basic phenomena in neurosciences. Wake craniotomy has become an option to preserve function during surgery in the proximity of eloquent areas of brain speech area, motor area. Providing a calm and relaxed patient without the risk of airway obstruction is a challenge. Monitored anaesthesia care and asleep-awake-asleep techniques have been used with success. Endoscopic neurosurgery with its advantages of minimal invasion and clear depiction of the structures is becoming more common.
Neuro Peadiatrics deals with the study of treatment programs for infants, children and adolescents with neurological problems affecting the nervous system. It treats children with brain and neurological conditions with a multidisciplinary approach led by neuro physicians. The pediatric neurology service coordinates medical treatment and therapy for children with neurological conditions. Some of the specialties include are concussion, neonatal neurology, brain malformations, headache migraine, metabolic diseases affecting the nervous system, neuro-oncology, pediatric sleep disorders, developmental disorders including autism, pediatric neuromuscular disorders including muscular dystrophy and congenital myopathies, neurological complications of other pediatric diseases.
Behavioral neurology is a subspecialty of neurology that studies the impact of neurological damage and disease upon behavior, memory, and cognition, and the treatment thereof. Two fields associated with behavioral neurology are neuropsychiatry and neuropsychology. In the United States, Behavioral Neurology and Neuropsychiatry has been recognized as a single subspecialty by the United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties (UCNS) since 2004. Behavioral neurology is that specialty of one which deals with the study of neurological basis of behavior, memory, and cognition, and their impact of damage and disease and treatment. In United States, the work of Norman Geschwind led to a renaissance of behavioral neurology. He is famous for his work on disconnection syndromes, aphasia, and behavioral syndromes of limbic epilepsy, also called Geschwind syndrome. Having trained generations of behavioral neurologists Antonio Damasio, Geschwind is considered the father of behavioral neurology.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system. The symptoms generally come on slowly over time. Early in the disease the most obvious are shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement, and difficulty with walking. Thinking and behavioral problems may also occur. Dementia becomes common in the advanced stages of the disease. Depression and anxiety are also common, occurring in more than a third of people with Parkinson's disease. Other symptoms include sensory, sleep, and emotional problems. The main motor symptoms are collectively called parkinsonism or a parkinsonian syndrome. The cause of Parkinson's disease is generally unknown, but believed to involve both genetic and environmental factors. The motor symptoms of the disease result from the death of cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain. Diagnosis of typical cases is mainly based on symptoms, with tests such as neuroimaging being used to rule out other diseases.
Neuro-ophthalmology is a subspecialty that combines the fields of neurology and ophthalmology, often dealing with complex systemic diseases that have manifestations in the visual system. Since diagnostic studies can be normal in patients with significant neuro-ophthalmic disease, a detailed medical history and physical exam is essential and neuro-ophthalmologists often spend a significant amount of time with their patients. Common pathology referred to a neuro-ophthalmologist includes afferent visual system disorders such as optic neuritis, optic neuropathy, papilledema, brain tumors or strokes and efferent visual system disorders anisocoria, diplopia, ophthalmoplegia, ptosis, nystagmus, blepharospasm, seizures of the eye or eye muscles, and hemifacial spasm. Patients often have co-existing disease in other fields like rheumatology, endocrinology, oncology, cardiology, etc. Thus the neuro-ophthalmologist is often a liaison between the ophthalmology department and other departments in the medical center.
Neurotoxicology deals with research on the effects of toxic substances on the nervous system of humans and experimental animals of all ages. The Journal emphasizes papers dealing with the neurotoxic effects of environmentally significant chemical hazards, manufactured drugs and naturally occurring compounds. It deals with the effects of neurotoxicants on other systems such as reproductive, endocrine, immune or processes metabolic. It determines chemical concentrations and cellular-level interactions in target tissue; determine changes in gene and protein expression associated with chemical exposures; effect high-throughput, comprehensive cognitive or behavioral assessments; employ multiple species including nonhuman primates, rodents, and, in some cases, humans, in the risk-assessment process to reduce the uncertainty associated with extrapolating findings across species; develop novel histochemical tracers to aid in the evaluation of chemical-induced pathologies.
Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, functional pharmacology of the nervous system. It is a relatively new discipline within medicine, neuroscience, and psychology. Physicians who specialize in the performance and interpretation of neuroimaging in the clinical setting are neuroradiologists. Neuroimaging falls into two broad categories. Structural imaging deals with the structure of the nervous system and the diagnosis of gross large scale intracranial disease such as tumor and injury; functional imaging is used to diagnose metabolic diseases and lesions on a finer scale such as Alzheimer's disease and also for neurological and cognitive psychology research and building brain-computer interfaces. Functional imaging enables for example the processing of information by centers in the brain to be visualized directly. Such processing causes the involved area of the brain to increase metabolism and light up on the scan. One of the more controversial uses of neuroimaging has been research into thought identification or mind-reading.
Clinical neurology is a branch of neuroscience that focuses on the scientific study of fundamental mechanisms that underlie diseases and disorders of the brain and central nervous system. It seeks to develop new ways of diagnosing such disorders and ultimately of developing novel treatments. A clinical neuroscientist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field. Clinicians-including psychiatrists, neurologists, clinical psychologists and other medical specialists use basic research findings from neuroscience in general and clinical neuroscience in particular to develop diagnostic methods and ways to prevent and treat neurological disorders. Such disorders include addiction Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, bipolar disorder, brain tumors, depression, Down syndrome, dyslexia, epilepsy, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, neurological AIDS, neurological trauma, pain, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, sleep disorders, stroke and Tourette syndrome.
Neurosurgery is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system. In United States, a neurosurgeon must generally complete four years of undergraduate education, four years of medical school, and seven years of residency PGY-1-7. Most residency programs have some component of basic science or clinical research. Neurosurgeons may pursue additional training in the form of a fellowship, after residency or in some cases, as a senior resident. These fellowships include pediatric neurosurgery, trauma/neurocritical care, functional and stereotactic surgery, surgical neuro-oncology, radiosurgery, neurovascular surgery, skull-base surgery, peripheral nerve and spine surgery. In US neurosurgery is considered a highly competitive specialty.
Functional Neurosurgery treats patients with treatment resistant neurological disorders such as epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, chronic pain and spasticity. The surgical division of the Jefferson Comprehensive Epilepsy Center benefits from one of the largest referral bases and clinical volumes in the country. Procedures regularly performed for the treatment of epilepsy include implants for long-term invasive monitoring, stereotactic EEG, resective surgeries, such as lobectomies and seizure focus resection; disconnection surgeries, such ascorpus callosotomy; vagal nerve stimulator (VNS) implants; responsive neurostimulator (RNS) implants; stereotactic laser ablation. Patients with movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia and essential tremor, are generally treated by Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) after medical management has failed.
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) disrupts the normal function of the brain. Neurotrauma is a head or spine injury caused by a sudden injury. It includes concussions, traumatic brain injuries (TBI), skull fractures, spinal column fractures, and spinal cord injuries (SCI). This condition can adversely affect a person's quality of life with cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and physical symptoms that limit interpersonal, social, and occupational functioning. Although many systems exist, the simplest classification includes mild, moderate, and severe Traumatic Brain Injury depending on the nature of injury and the impact on the patient's clinical status. Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury require prompt evaluation and multidisciplinary management. Aside from the type and severity of the TBI, recovery is influenced by individual patient characteristics, social and environmental factors, and access to medical and rehabilitation services.
Skull base surgery may be done to remove both noncancerous and cancerous growths, and abnormalities on the underside of the brain, the skull base, or the top few vertebrae of the spinal column. Because this is such a difficult area to see and reach, skull base surgery may be done by a minimally invasive endoscopic procedure. In this procedure, the surgeon inserts instruments through the natural openings in the skull—the nose or mouth—or by making a small hole just above the eyebrow. This type of surgery requires a team of specialists that may include ENT ear, nose, and throat surgeons, maxillofacial surgeons, neurosurgeons, and radiologists. Skull base surgery can be done in two main ways. Although the preferred method is endoscopic, open surgery is also an option, depending on the type of growth that needs to be removed and its location.
The field of neurological surgery is well suited for the incorporation of robotic assistance. The past two decades have seen the rapid development and commercialization of numerous robotic systems in surgery. In terms of growth and adoption, the laparoscopic/thoracoscopic platforms such as the da Vinci Surgical System have experienced the greatest increases, and in 2015 over 700,000 surgical procedures were performed using this system. Growth in this area continues, and it has been projected that use of the robot for procedures such as a minimally invasive colectomy will increase over the next 10 years by 38%. Traditionally several aspects of our subspecialty lend themselves to the need and implementation of robotics. The development of the CyberKnife by John Adler, a neurosurgeon at Stanford University represented perhaps the first true modern application of robotic surgery. The CyberKnife was the first platform that allowed for the entire procedure to be executed without direct surgeon-patient contact and with full control from a remote location. As such, it represented the actualization of robotic neurosurgery.
Neurology as a distinct specialty is relatively new in the history of medicine. Beginning with Charcot, who built his neurology on a firm phenomenologic basis, the specialty of neurology was developed rapidly by such outstanding clinicians as Babinski, Duchenne, Erb, Marie, and Hughlings Jackson. In the 19th century, clinical observations increasingly were linked to neuroanatomical substrates. At the turn of the century, neuropathology gained a foothold, and clinical methods were developed further by such luminaries as Ramón y Cajal. A cadre of superb clinicians emerged. Mentored by superb clinicians neurologists were able to predict things other physicians could not often with startling accuracy. But the specialty was plagued by lack of definitive studies to confirm clinical impressions, and an even more pervasive paucity of treatments for most neurologic conditions which exacted such a heavy human toll.
Neuro Therapeutics, Diagnostics and Case Studies cover research on experimental treatments of neurological disorders. It is concerned with the treatment options for a variety of disorders such as acute neck and lower back pain, spine disorders, spine injuries and migraine headaches. Neuro therapeutics interprets diagnosis and treatment of neuro disorders from a patient's point of view. It reads and interprets existing imaging already performed MRI, CT, X-ray or order new imaging. This helps in discussing and implementing a plan of care for specific treatments, which includes therapy, medication, a home regimen, or the performance of interventional procedures including epidural steroid injections, nerve root blocks or other pain alleviating techniques.
Stem Cell for Neurological Disorders deal with the treatment procedures of neurological disorders using stem cells. Stem cells or mother or queen of all cells are pleuropotent and have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body. Serving as a sort of repair system for the body, they can theoretically divide without limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is alive. When a stem cell divides, each new cell has the potential to either remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell. Stem cells differ from other kinds of cells in the body. All stem cells regardless of their source have three general properties such as stem cells do not have any tissue-specific structures; they can give rise to specialized cell types; unspecialized stem cells can give rise to specialized cells including heart muscle cells, blood cells, or nerve cells. They are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods.